Nuclear proton–proton chain reaction in the Sun’s Corona

The currently theory about the sun is, that it is a nuclear fusion powered by its core by fusion processes from a hot plasma of hydrogen and helium. The core of the sun has a temperature around 15 MK and the energy thus created takes many years to work its way upward to the surface through the different layers. When it reaches the visible “surface” of the sun (the photosphere) the temperature has cold down. This theory fails to explain many of the observed phenomenon in a rational manner. Its chief shortcomings being its inability to fully explain the actual process in the core region rationally and the high temperatures of the corona 1-2 MK, whilst sun’s surface temperatures being slightly less than 6000 K.

My hypothesis of nuclear proton–proton chain reaction in the corona resolves the problem of coronal heating, which cannot be explained using conventional model, with fusion inside the core.
In general, pair production of positrons and electrons is a phenomenon of nature where energy is direct converted to matter. In the pair production process, an incident gamma ray of sufficiently high energy is annihilated in the Coulomb field of a nearby charged particle, resulting in the creation of an electron–positron pair. It is one of the possible ways in which gamma rays in the sun interact with matter.
With this new hypothesis a creation of protons is going on all the time in the corona, made of positrons in the the pair production, generated by gamma ray in the sun corona plasma magnetic fields [1]. All generate electrons in the pair production follows the sun winds which thrown out of the sun.

The theory that proton–proton reactions are the basic principle by which the Sun and other stars burn, was advocated by Arthur Eddington in the 1920s.
In the Sun, deuterium producing events are rare. Diprotons are the much more common result of proton–proton chain reactions within the sun, and diprotons almost immediately decay back into two protons.
The proton-proton chain is, like a decay chain, a series of reactions. The product of one reaction is the starting material of the next reaction. There are two such chains leading from Hydrogen to Helium in the Sun. One chain has five reactions, the other chain has six.

The sun produces equal amount of positive as negative mass (pair production of positrons and electrons). The negative mas, the electrons, follow the sun winds out from the sun. The positive mass, positrons, the building blocks of matter [1], will increase the sun’s mass which increase its radiation intensity over the time. It is known that the sun has increased its luminosity significantly, by about 30 percent, over its 4.55-billion-year lifespan. This increasing luminosity is important because it could cause significant climate change in the future. The long-term dataset in a study by Dr. Richard C. Willson, Principal Investigator of NASA’s ACRIM experiments, shows a significant positive trend (.05 percent per decade) in total solar irradiance between the solar minima of solar cycles 21 to 23. This finding may help climatologists to distinguish between solar and man-made influences on climate.

The sunspots in the sun’s corona are areas that appear dark on the surface because they are cooler than other parts of the sun’s surface, and the solar flares, picture 1 and 2, are a sudden explosion of energy, probably caused by nuclear fusion similar as in hydrogen bombs. In the dark areas the proton–proton chain reaction has slowed down, and the amount of deuterium and tritium may increase to a level, a critical mass, to start the chain reaction. The amount of solar activity changes with the stages in the solar cycle. Solar activity can also have an effect here on Earth, therefore scientists closely monitor solar activity every day.

The process of magnetized plasma turbulence is not unique to the sun. It plays an equally important role in the formation of galaxies, the solar and stellar winds, and may become one of the biggest societal applications of plasma physics, controlled fusion energy.

Picture 1         

Picture 2         

 

[1] The building blocks of matter, Preprint https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331099892_The_building_blocks_of_matter

Quark model

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