Nuclear Fusion Processes in the Sun’s Corona

 

Photo 1. Nuclear fusion in corona.

Currently theory about the sun holds that it is a nuclear fusion “reactor” powered by its core having high pressures and temperatures, by fusion processes from a hot plasma of hydrogen and helium. The core of the sun has a temperature around 15 MK and the energy thus created takes many years to work its way upward through the different layers of the sun. Eventually it reaches the visible “surface” of the sun (the photosphere), which is relatively cool. Theory fails to explain many of the observed phenomenon in a rational manner. Its chief shortcomings being its inability to fully explain the actual process of fusion in the core region rationally, high temperatures of corona 1-2 MK around the sun whilst surface sun temperatures being slightly less than 6000 K.

My hypothesis of nuclear fusion in the corona, photo 1, resolves the problem of coronal heating which cannot be explained using conventional model of sun fusion (with fusion inside the core).

In general, pair production of positrons and electrons is a phenomenon of nature where energy is direct converted to matter. The first way can be represented by formation of electron and positron, from a packet of electromagnetic energy, gamma ray.  It is one of the possible ways in which gamma rays interact with matter.

With this new hypothesis is the electromagnetic energy (gamma ray) very high in the sun corona plasma magnetic fields where nuclear fusion generates energy by converting hydrogen into helium. Hydrogen are generated all the time in the corona, by the positrons from the pair production in the gamma ray regarding to my hypothesis of the building blocks of matter. In the electron cluster around the sun gamma radiation is required to creation of pair production. All generate electrons from the pair production follow the sun winds out from the sun. The sun produces equal amount of positive as negative mass (positrons and electrons). The sun will therefore increase in mass and size which increase its radiation intensity.

Since the late 1970s, the amount of solar radiation the sun emits, during times of quiet sunspot activity, photo 2, has increased by nearly .05 percent per decade, according to a NASA funded study.

Photo 2. Sunspot activity.

This trend is important because, if sustained over many decades, it could cause significant climate change. 50 year will change the climate as much as carbon dioxide (CO2) is doubled, a point of no return!

Why Plasma Is the Crown of the Solar Eclipse

The process of magnetized plasma turbulence is not unique to the sun. It plays an equally important role in the formation of galaxies, the solar and stellar winds, and what may become one of the biggest societal applications of plasma physics: controlled fusion energy.

Ever since the United States first tested the hydrogen bomb — a staged fusion device — 65 years ago on an island in the Pacific Ocean, scientists have dreamed of harnessing that same fusion energy, which also powers the core of the sun, in a controlled way for peaceful purposes. Today, several fusion-reactor concepts are being pursued in the U.S. and around the world as a safer alternative to nuclear power plants.

Most of those concepts rely on the ability to confine a fusion plasma within magnetic fields. One of the keys to success will be to learn how to take advantage of nature’s lessons to both heat and control the plasma, much in the same way that — on a much larger scale — the plasma is both heated and organized into well-defined structures in the sun’s corona.

https://www.livescience.com/60160-plasma-is-crown-of-solar-eclipse.html

Quark model

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